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Gunfire At Sea A Case Study Of Innovation Summary Plan

Presentation on theme: "Apply Change Management Principles to Gunfire at Sea Case Study"— Presentation transcript:

1 Apply Change Management Principles to Gunfire at Sea Case Study
Intermediate Cost AnalysisAnd Management

2 Expect & Anticipate Resistance
A good idea is not always enough to overcome resistance to changeA good idea is not always enough to overcome resistance to change As a change agent you must expect and anticipating resistance and where it will come from in order to avoid reactivity.

3 Terminal Learning Objective
Task: Apply Change Management Principles to Gunfire at Sea Case StudyCondition: You are training to become an ACE with access to ICAM course handouts, readings, and spreadsheet tools and awareness of Operational Environment (OE)/Contemporary Operational Environment (COE) variables and actorsStandard: with at least 80% accuracyIdentify components of change and needs analysis from real world scenario.Identify steps to overcoming resistance to change in a real world scenario.

4 IntroductionThis case introduces the technology that allowed navel gunners to be able to shoot while in motion, now known as Continuous-Aim Firing. The Ft. Hood case (discussed a couple of days ago) dealt with main battle tanks that adopted this same technology. Mr. Sims is the major player in the case. The case outlines the problems Mr. Sims faced selling a breakthrough technology to Senior Leadership. That technology now provides a competitive advantage in the battle field.This case introduces the technology that allowed navel gunners to be able to shoot while in motion, now known as Continuous-Aim Firing. The Ft. Hood case (discussed a couple of days ago) dealt with main battle tanks that adopted this same technology. Mr. Sims is the major player in the case.The case outlines the problems Mr. Sims faced selling a breakthrough technology to Senior Leadership. That technology now provides a competitive advantage in the battle field.

5 Change and Needs Analysis
Diagnosis andneeds analysisInterventionFollow-upLSA 1: Identify components of change and needs analysis from real world scenario.Participants should read the case and answer the basic questions prior to coming to class sessionStart by reviewing the case so that all are ‘on the same page’.Assign each team to one of the case questions. Discuss each of the 4 parts separately to drive the points across.The case discussion is designed to be 40 min, so allow approximately 10 minutes for each team to discuss their question with the other teams.Each Group Should Address their questions by keeping the following questions in mind.What are the forces for change?What are the forces preserving the status quo?What are the most likely sources of resistance?What are the goals to be accomplished by change?The idea is to use the material from the case as reference to drive the points for the rest of the material that follows.AskWhat are the forces for change?What are the forces preserving the status quo?What are the most likely sources of resistance?What are the goals to be accomplished by change?18

6 Gunfire at Sea: A Case Study of Innovation
Setting the StageQ: If you were Sims what would you do now?LSA1: Identify components of change and needs analysis from real world scenario.Setting the StageQ: If you were Sims what would you do now?

7 Gunfire at Sea: A Case Study of Innovation
Setting the StageQ: If you were Sims what would you do now?A. Report, document, develop support of what he is doing, assess what needs to happen, identify whom to talk to in order to get needed leadership support, introduce new way of thinking, start changing cultural mindset.LSA1: Identify components of change and needs analysis from real world scenario.Setting the StageQ: If you were Sims what would you do now?A: Report, document, develop support of what he is doing, assess what needs to happen, identify whom to talk to in order to get needed leadership support, introduce new way of thinking, start changing cultural mindset.

8 Gunfire at Sea: A Case Study of Innovation
What now? Q: What do you expect at this stage? Was this the correct approach? Was it handled appropriately?LSA1: Identify components of change and needs analysis from real world scenario.What now?Q: What do you expect at this stage? Was this the correct approach? Was it handled appropriately?

9 Gunfire at Sea: A Case Study of Innovation
What now? Q: What do you expect at this stage? Was this the correct approach? Was it handled appropriately? A. Signs of resistance to change. Identify Power Field assessment and expected resistors. Build support. Get a leadership sponsor/ support/ buy in. A. Identify the Stakeholders, players and gate keepers.What now?Q: What do you expect at this stage? Was this the correct approach? Was it handled appropriately?A: Signs of resistance to change. Identify Power Field assessment and expected resistors. Build support. Get a leadership sponsor/ support/ buy in.Identify the Stakeholders, players and gate keepers.

10 Gunfire at Sea: A Case Study of Innovation
Response Q: What should Sims do now?LSA 1:Q: If you were Sims what would you do now?A: Report, document, develop support of what he is doing, assess what needs to happen, identify whom to talk to in order to get needed leadership support, introduce new way of thinking, start changing cultural mindset.

11 Gunfire at Sea: A Case Study of Innovation
Response Q: What should Sims do now? A. Create ‘Sea of Change’ – momentum, bring others from the field to support Sims’ findings, show support that what he is doing has merit and it can work for others not only Sims. Create support from the trenches. Get leadership support ASAP.ResponseQ: What should Sims do now?A: Create ‘Sea of Change’ – momentum, bring others from the field to support Sims’ findings, show support that what he is doing has merit and it can work for others not only Sims. Create support from the trenches. Get leadership support ASAP.

12 Gunfire at Sea: A Case Study of Innovation
Response – cont. Q: What should Sims do now? A. Realize why there is no response. Identify which are the arguments. What is the downside? A. Failed to assess the situation correctly. It was obvious to him, but not to the rest.LSA1:Response – cont.Q: What should Sims do now?A: Realize why there is no response. Identify which are the arguments. What is the downside?Failed to assess the situation correctly. It was obvious to him, but not to the rest.

13 Gunfire at Sea: A Case Study of Innovation
Sims’s Final ActionQ: Was his action correct? Why? Why not?

14 Gunfire at Sea: A Case Study of Innovation
Sims’s Final ActionQ: Was his action correct? Why? Why not?A: It was correct in principal. Though could have backfired. Did not have any other option else in case his final action failed.However, he basically failed in the change process. It was by luck that eventually it happened.LSA 1:Sims’s Final ActionQ: Was his action correct? Why? Why not?A: It was correct in principal. Though could have backfired. Did not have any other option else in case his final action failed.However, he basically failed in the change process. It was by luck that eventually it happened.

15 Gunfire at Sea: A Case Study of Innovation
Sims’s Final Action - cont.Q: Was his action correct? Why? Why not?Q: What did he try to achieve by his Final Action?Muster management support. Something that he could not do before.Exemplify entrepreneurial spirit to its ultimate: putting everything “on the line”.LSA1:Sims’s Final Action - cont.Q: Was his action correct? Why? Why not?Q: What did he try to achieve by his Final Action?Muster management support. Something that he could not do before.Exemplify entrepreneurial spirit to its ultimate: putting everything “on the line”.

16 Learning CheckQ. What are the forces for change? Q. What are the forces preserving the status quo? Q. What are the most likely sources of resistance?Q. What are the forces for change?Q. What are the forces preserving the status quo?Q. What are the most likely sources of resistance?Students should have many responses to these portions of the analysis.

17 Reactions to Change and Interventions
DisengagementPsychological withdrawal from changeDisidentificationFeeling that one’sidentity is beingthreatened by changeDisenchantmentFeeling negativity oranger toward a changeDisorientationFeelings of loss and confusion due to changeExpressionWithdrawalSadness, worryAngerConfusionInterventionConfront, identifyExplore, transferNeutralize, acknowledgeExplain, planLSA 2: Identify steps to overcoming resistance to change in a real world scenario.These reactions describe what may be going on internally in the individuals who are dealing with change:Disengagement – withdrawing from changeDisidentification - Feeling that one’s identity is beingthreatened by changeDisenchantment – negativity or angerDisorientation – loss and confusion.13

18 Reactions to Change and Interventions
DisengagementPsychological withdrawal from changeDisidentificationFeeling that one’sidentity is beingthreatened by changeDisenchantmentFeeling negativity oranger toward a changeDisorientationFeelings of loss and confusion due to changeExpressionWithdrawalSadness, worryAngerConfusionInterventionConfront, identifyExplore, transferNeutralize, acknowledgeExplain, planLSA 2: Identify steps to overcoming resistance to change in a real world scenario.How do we identify what is going on inside a person? We can identify the expression of those feelings. (This is the “Diagnosis/needs analysis” from the diagram on slide 5).Disengagement – withdrawal (not surprisingly.)Disidentification – sadness or worryDisenchantment – anger (again, nor suprising.)Disorientation – confusion13

19 Reactions to Change and Interventions
DisengagementPsychological withdrawal from changeDisidentificationFeeling that one’sidentity is beingthreatened by changeDisenchantmentFeeling negativity oranger toward a changeDisorientationFeelings of loss and confusion due to changeExpressionWithdrawalSadness, worryAngerConfusionInterventionConfront, identifyExplore, transferNeutralize, acknowledgeExplain, planLSA 2: Identify steps to overcoming resistance to change in a real world scenario.Once we identify the expression we can intervene. (The “intervention” step on slide 5)Disengagement – confront, identifyDisidentification – explore, transferDisenchantment – neutralize, acknowledgeDisorientation – explain, plan.13

20 Applying Lewin’s Model to the Organization
UnfreezeChangeRefreezeReducing forcesfor status quoDeveloping newattitudes, values,and behaviorsReinforcing newattitudes, values,and behaviorsUnfreezingChangeRefreezingInvolves encouraging individuals to discard old behaviors by shaking up the equilibrium state that maintains the status quo - the organization eliminates rewards for current behaviorNew attitudes, values, and behaviors are substituted for old ones - the organization initiates new options and explains their rationaleInvolves the establishment of new attitudes, values, and behaviors as the new status quo - organizational culture and formal reward systems encourage the new behaviorsLSA 2: Identify steps to overcoming resistance to change in a real world scenario.Steps in the Change Process (Kurt Lewin’s Model)UnfreezingIndividuals must be shown why the change is necessary.Implementing changeThe change itself is implemented.RefreezingInvolves reinforcing and supporting the change so that it becomes a integral part of the system.16

21 Reasons for Resistance to Change
UncertaintyPlanned ChangeThreatened self-interestsConflicting perceptionsLSA 2: Identify steps to overcoming resistance to change in a real world scenario.In any change situation there is 25% who are for the change, 25% who are very opposed to it and 50% whom I call the fence sitters. These are the 50% who will go whichever way they think will be the one that will ‘stick’.So, the idea is to show from the very beginning that the change is here to stay and to show some fest results for it so to win the 50%. If one responds late then the 50% could go to the opposing side, meaning that the they will be resisting the change.Feelings of personal loss

22 Resistance to Change It can be either Behavioral, or Systemic, or both
LSA 2: Identify steps to overcoming resistance to change in a real world scenario.Resistance can be It can be either Behavioral, or Systemic, or both.11

23 Behavioral Resistance (software)
Based on Perceptions of Consequences, perceptions are negatively exaggeratedCulturalPoliticalPersonal insecurityFear of incompetenceContradiction with model of realityViolation of norms of behaviorIrrelevance of expected resultsLack of rewards/ incentivesLoss of powerLoss of influenceLoss of rewardsLoss of prestigeLoss of fundingLSA 2: Identify steps to overcoming resistance to change in a real world scenario.Middle management are usually the largest resistors.

24 Systemic Resistance (hardware)
Is proportional to:Conflict of strategic vs. operating work (short term vs. long term)IncapacityIncompetenceShortage of budgetsShortage of managersShortage of functional capacityLack of skillsLack of correct informationInability of systems structureLSA 2: Identify steps to overcoming resistance to change in a real world scenario.Not necessarily that the People can not or do not want to do it, but that the system can not do it.

Teaching Note | HBS Case Collection | May 2014

Gunfire at Sea (multi-media case)

Michael Tushman

This short video illustrates the challenges of leading innovation and change. This classic case (one of the oldest in the HBS system) retains its timeliness. The case describes how Lt. Sims develops a new form of gunfire at sea—continuous aim gunfire. While 3,000% more accurate than existing guns, the video case describes how the Navy, as a successful social system, systematically rejected Sims' innovation. The case gets at multiple sources of inertia including culture, capabilities, personality, power, structure, Navy processes, and the fact that the U.S. Navy was one of the most successful Navies at the time. The case's extraordinary outcome illustrates the randomness of innovation and the importance of strong executive leadership in leading change associated with seemingly minor (in this case architectural) innovation.

Keywords: Leading Change; National Security; Innovation Leadership; Public Administration Industry; United States;

Citation:

Tushman, Michael. "Gunfire at Sea (multi-media case)." Harvard Business School Teaching Note 414-077, May 2014.  View Details