Click the above link to view Word documents for all the handouts for this chapter.
Critical Thinking Exercise: Crime and Punishment
This critical thinking exercise is based on a current news article in which a young woman was arrested for selling $400 worth of heroin to an undercover police officer in 1974. She was sentenced to a 10-20 year prison term, but escaped after 8 months. She was caught 34 years later in 2008. She had become a model citizen with 3 children that she had raised as model citizens. She was returned to Michigan to complete her jail sentence. Her family and friends petitioned the governor for clemency. The details are described in the exercise,Crime and Punishment. These is also a worksheet that helps students work through the steps of critical thinking for this case. See theCritical Thinking Worksheet: Crime and Punishment.
Review the concept that critical thinking involves looking at a problem from many points of view. Divide students into discussion groups for this exercise. Have each group write a different point of view on the board. As a summary, have students volunteer to state their personal values and reasonable point of view at the end. This exercise is included in the printed text and available as a supplement for the online edition.
You can use any interesting and complex current event or social issue for this type of exercise. Copy interesting shows or news specials from TV and use them for this exercise. Topics that have been good for class discussion include elections, health issues such as smoking, welfare, violence in the schools, and cults such as Heaven’s Gate. If they are complex and controversial, you will get a variety of opinions and the discussion will be interesting. This exercise works well if students respect each other’s point of view. If it becomes a debate, students can get sidetracked and have difficulty going through the critical thinking process.
Critical Thinking Exercise: Assisted Suicide
A critical thinking exercise on the controversial topic of assisted suicide for terminally ill patients is available as a supplemental exercise. See theCritical Thinking Exercise: Assisted Suicideandthe Critical Thinking Worksheet: Assisted Suicidefor this exercise. You can also use any current complex issue in the news. When using these exercises with your class, emphasize that they are complex and controversial issues. The purpose of discussing them is to practice a critical thinking process rather than to reach a solution. Stress that there is no right answer, only reasonable views. Ask students to respect each other’s point of view. Try to be neutral on these issues and wait until the end of the discussion to share your reasonable view.
For the assisted suicide article, have students discuss the issue in groups and fill out the work sheet provided at the end of the chapter. You can divide students into groups and ask each group to summarize a different point of view. Write these headings on the board: the judge in the courtroom, the husband, the wife, the children (of this couple), medical doctors and a member of the clergy. Sometimes students even want to write down the point of view of animal rights groups. Wait until the groups have begun the discussion and ask for groups to volunteer to write the point of view for each topic written on the board. You might suggest that certain groups take a particular topic to match their interests. For example, if a group is talking about religious issues, assign this group to write under the religious heading. If they are talking about the law, have them pretend to be the judge and write their answers under the legal heading. After the different points of view are written on the board, objectively read through them with the class. Often the group suggests additional ideas, but remind the group that we are just trying to understand the different points of view without making a judgment at this point. After the discussion, have each student write his or her own reasonable view. Ask for volunteers to share some of their reasonable views as a summary. Ask students to be aware of their own particular mindset and to respect views that may be different from their own. Save your reasonable view for last and share it with the class.
Stress the fact that there is no right or wrong answer to these situations. Each person will construct his or her reasonable view based on personal values and experiences. What is important is to think through the process and look at the problem from many different perspectives.
Critical Thinking about Your Decisions
Use the worksheet,Critical Thinking about your Decisions, to help students to apply what they have learned about critical thinking to their own decisions.
Examples of Fallacies in Reasoning
Recognizing fallacies in reasoning is an important part of critical thinking and can help students to avoid using them or allowing someone else use them for their own purpose, power, or financial gain. Ask students familiarize themselves with the fallacies in reasoning presented in this chapter. Then have them look for a news editorial, magazine article, or advertisement to illustrate a fallacy in reasoning. Students can then paste this example to a sheet of paper and identify and explain the fallacy. These papers can be posted in the classroom or presented to the class.
(From Carla Edwards, Instructor, Cuyamaca College, El Cajon, CA)
Play jeopardy with the fallacies in reasoning definitions and examples presented in this chapter. Use the PowerPoint template for theJeopardy Game. Just substitute your own questions on the slides.
Fun with Critical Thinking
Have some fun using these brainteasers to engage your students in critical thinking using the handout,Fun with Critical Thinking. (From Paul Delys, Cuyamaca College)
Moral Reasoning Exercise
Analyze this dilemma using the stages of moral reasoning:
Mr. Allen’s son was seriously injured, but he had no car to take him to the hospital.The approaches a stranger and asks to borrow the car, but the stranger refused saying that he had to go to an important appointment.Mr. Allen steals the car by force to take this son to the hospital.Was it right for Mr. Allen to steal the car? Use the handout, "A Moral Dilemma," to analyze this scenario and guide students through the stages of moral reasoning.
Brainstorming with a Peanut Exercise
For this exercise, you will need to bring peanuts in their shells for each of your students and a timer. Review the rules for brainstorming listed in the text and on theBrainstorming Exercise. For the first half of the exercise, have the students do the brainstorming individually. Set the timer for 3-5 minutes and challenge them to come up with 10 answers before the time is up. The first question is, "How is this this peanut like me?" Half way through the time, remind them that they should have at least 5 answers. Remind the students that they can be wild and crazy and come up with unusual answers. Challenge them to use their imagination.
At the end of the time allowed, ask them to place an asterisk (*) next to their best items. Ask for volunteers to share their best answers. Here are some answers that have been given in the past:
How is this peanut like me?
It is wrinkled, like me.
It is brown, like me.
It cracks under pressure.
What you see is not always what you get.
Everyone is different.
It just sits in class.
You can find both of us at ballgames.
I can make any sandwich delicious.
For the second half of the exercise, do the brainstorming as a group and have students call out as many ideas as possible in the five minutes. Pose the question, “How is this peanut like going to college?” and ask for answers from the class as a whole. Remind students that they can steal other’s ideas, add to them or change them around. For a warm-up, share some of these ideas:
How is this peanut like going to college?
There are 2 nuts inside; one is the teacher and the other is the student.
We’re all nuts to a degree.
Some professors are nuts.
We both went to _________’s class today.
College drives me nuts.
A bag of peanuts is like a room full of students, all different shapes and sizes and not anyone is the same.
The college professor is the peanut farmer and the student is the peanut. A good farmer makes for good peanuts.
Sometimes a class is not all it's cracked up to be.
You have to pay for peanuts, just like you have to pay for college (only peanuts are way cheaper!)
The instructor is the farmer and the students are the peanuts.
The first step in cracking a peanut is cracking the shell. The first step in college success is cracking a book.
A peanut can be used for many things such as peanut butter or peanut oil. College helps use to develop our skills to prepare for a variety of careers.
After the brainstorming exercise, go over the other ways to cultivate creativity:
Serendipity Relaxed attention
Idea Files Visualization
Journal Critical Thinking
Brainstorming: How to Graduate from College
Have students brainstorm the answer to this question, "What are all the things that could interfere with graduating from college?" Then have students choose one item from the list and generate as many solutions for this problem as possible. This is a good creativity exercise as well as getting students to apply creative problem solving to their own lives.
Creative Visualization with a Light Bulb Exercise
Bring an ordinary light bulb to class. Hold the light bulb in your hand so that everyone can see it. Ask students to close their eyes and see if they can still visualize the light bulb in their minds. Ask students to raise their hands if they can see the light bulb in their imagination. Then ask them to visualize the following:
Turn the light bulb on.
Turn it off.
Turn the light on.
Change the color to blue.
Change the color to yellow.
Change the color to green.
Change the color to orange.
Make the light bulb bigger.
Change the light bulb into a television screen.
See your favorite program on the screen.
Change the channel.
Turn the television off.
See another light bulb.
Turn it into a flashlight.
Shine the flashlight on a dog.
Make the dog bigger.
Turn the dog into a cat.
Hear the cat meow.
Turn the cat into a bird.
Put a light bulb in each hand.
Pretend that your light bulbs are jet engines and run down the street for a take-off.
Zoom off into the air.
Circle over your house.
Circle over your city.
Zoom away and look at the mountains.
Zoom back to your house.
Throw the light bulbs away and open your parachute.
Float down into your back yard and tell someone that you are home.
I’ll bet that you never thought that you could make a jet plane out of a light bulb!
You can if you use your imagination.
The above exercise was adapted from Robert F. Eberle, “Developing Imagination Through Scamper” printed in Sidney J. Parnes, Ruth B. Noller and Angelo Biondi,Guide to Creative Action, (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1977).
The Tomatoes Exercise
Bring two tomatoes to class. Hold up the tomatoes and ask the students to come up with as many different words or proper nouns as possible using only the letters in the word “tomatoes.” After five minutes, write the numbers 10-20 on the board. Ask how many students came up with 20 words or more. Tally the result. Then list the number of people who were able to write 19 words and so on down the list to 10 words.
Then ask students to join together with three other students. Using the word, “tomatoes,” see how many words the group can come up with in 5 minutes. Again tally the results. Usually the groups are able to come up with many more ideas than individuals. You can make this exercise more interesting by offering a prize to the group that comes up with the most words. When the exercise is complete, discuss the idea of synergy. When two or more people work together and share ideas, the result is greater than any one person could produce.
For Online Classes
Online Discussion Question
The topic for this week's discussion is critical and creative thinking. For the critical thinking part, give an example of a fallacy in reasoning. Here are some examples: 1. When my children were very young, I would tell them to brush their teeth in the evening. I told them that if they did not brush their teeth, the sugar bugs would eat their teeth all night and eventually their teeth would turn green and fall out. By predicting dire consequences, we try to influence behavior. This is an example of using slippery slope. Maybe some of you child development majors would have a better way of getting children to brush their teeth, but this worked for me. Here is another example: When my daughter was in middle school, she died her blond hair black. I asked her why she did it and she said that she was tired of blond jokes. She was the victim of the stereotype that all blondes are dumb.
For the creative thinking part, read about creativity and brainstorming and have a little fun with this exercise. Provide at least 3 answers to these questions: 1. How is a peanut like you? Here are my answers. 1. A peanut is wrinkled, like me. 2. A peanut is curvy like me. 2. I have a hard outer shell and a soft inner shell. How is a peanut like going to college? In every classroom there are at least 2 nuts, the instructor and at least one student. The squares on the peanut remind me of rows of chairs in the classroom. 3. There is usually something good on the inside.
At Coburg Banks, we’re not a major fan of interview brainteasers.
In fact in one of our previous posts, 27 Behavioural Questions You Must Ask Your Interviewees we openly discredited their efficiency!
We just feel that they’re a little too off-putting for candidates, who are already feeling the pressure and unless utilised correctly, they really don’t reveal that much!
However, if you’re going to do something, you might as well do it right!
This week, we’re breaking down brainteasers, so you can make a more informed decision – are they right for your business?
Why use brainteasers?
Generally, the best hires are those who can identify problems quickly and solve them efficiently.
Critical thinking brainteasers have been created to assess candidates on the following key skills…
– Problem Solving.Can they at least attempt to solve problems as they arise? You don’t want an employee who keeps running to you, every time something goes even slightly wrong.
– Analysis.Can they look at the big picture and analyse all the available information to find a solution? You don’t want an employee who continuously overlooks important considerations.
– Creativity.Do they think outside the box? Sometimes, all it takes is a little bit of creative thinking so you don’t want an employee, constrained by the ‘rules’ (not all the time, anyway!)
– Performance under pressure.These questions will probably be completely out of the candidate’s comfort zone and it’s unlikely that they’ll have prepared for them. Can they keep it together?
Recruiter Pro Tip:
If performance under pressure is the most important factor to you, check out our recent blog post: 6 Left-Field Questions to Catch Someone Off Guard.
Asking questions that have no relevance…sounds like a great idea – right?
We’ll let you decide.
1. The pizza puzzle.
Q1. “If you were a pizza delivery man, how would you benefit from scissors?”
This little gem is attributed to Apple Inc and there clearly isn’t a ‘right answer.’
However, you can still use it to assess your interviewee’s ability to think critically and make well-formed arguments.
A great candidate will take time deliberating over exactly what it takes to be a pizza delivery man or woman and will consider exactly how they would use the scissors.
Clever so-and-so’s may even come up with reasons not to use scissors, which is still perfectly acceptable, as long as there is thought behind the decision!
These types of questions are likely to frustrate some interviewees so watch out for those who aren’t willing to play the game.
It’s an interview after all and you make the rules.
2. A calculated question.
Q2. “How would test a calculator?”
This is a fairly ambiguous question, attributed to IBMand you’d certainly assume that your average candidate won’t have dealt with the situation before!
You’re looking for a detailed and strategic method of testing the calculator.
First they’ll have to work out exactly what the question means:
Is it referring to the general functionality of the calculator (the buttons) or its actual mathematical ability?
Then they’ll have to come up with a systematic and efficient means of testing it.
They may require some paper to make notes; “visual” thinkers will need some way to visualise the process.
If a candidate appears to get confused by the question and the method they come up with doesn’t make any systematic or organisational sense, this could be a reflection on their general administrative skills.
However, there’s nothing wrong with a candidate who asks you to repeat the question or explain in more detail; sensible candidates will want to ensure the question is answered well, without rushing in without a clue.
3. Apples and pears.
Epic Systems are to blame for this epic interview question:
Q3. “An apple costs 40 cents, a banana costs 60 cents and a grapefruit costs 80 cents. How much does a pear cost?”
Hats off if you’ve managed to work out the answer to this one (without sneakily peaking below)!
It’s all about the vowels.
“If you charge 20 cents per vowel, the two-vowel word ‘apple’ would cost 40 cents, three-vowel ‘banana’ 60 cents, and four-vowel ‘grapefruit’ 80 cents.
Therefore, a pear would cost 40 cents.”
Clever – right?
If anyone manages to work this riddle out in a high-pressure interview situation, then as far as I’m concerned, you’re on to a winner.
(But do beware of anyone who’s too quick to answer – they may have heard it all before!)
However in general, if the candidate can come up with any sensible price and a good explanation of how they came to it, then they certainly deserve brownie points.
Use your initiative; is their answer sound, thought-out and practical?
If a candidate blurts out a number without being able to explain their reasoning, then they’ve clearly not bothered to consider the question properly.
4. What do a fox, a hen and a farmer have in common?
They’re all trying to get to the other side of the river…
Q4. “A farmer needs to cross the river with his chicken, a sack of corn and a fox.
His boat unfortunately only fits himself and one other thing.
The fox and chicken are hungry, so if he leaves the fox with the chicken, the chicken will get eaten, whilst if he leaves the chicken with the corn, the corn will get eaten.
How will the man get safely across with all 3?”
Do you recognise this question? Could you spontaneously answer it?
This is a really common brainteaser and is often utilised during group activities, to assess how well candidates can work together to solve a problem.
The answer is simple, when you know it:
The man takes the chicken across and then goes back for the fox.
He can’t leave the fox and chicken together so when he drops the fox off, he picks up the chicken. He then goes back for the corn.
He can’t leave the corn and the chicken together so when he picks up the corn, he drops off the chicken.
When the corn is safely with the fox on the right side of the river, he goes to collect the chicken.
Goodness knows why a farmer would be hanging around with a fox…
Candidates who take the time to understand each varying element and work their way through potential answers strategically, are most likely to be impressive problem-solvers.
In group interviews, look out for candidates who facilitate the discussion, taking into account everyone’s opinion and helping them reach a conclusion; they’re the leader.
If a candidate rattles off the answer immediately then chances are, they’ve faced this brainteaser before (a good, honest candidate will tell you if this is the case!)
Candidates who fail and don’t appear to ‘get’ the question or forget a major part of it (for example, they let the chicken and corn cross together) may have issues with listening, as well as critical thinking.
Q5. “How many potatoes (in kg) does McDonald’s sell in a year in the UK?”
There are hundreds of variations on this Oliver Wyman interview question, each assessing mental arithmetic and critical thinking.
– How many square feet of pizza are eaten in the UK every year?
– How many gas stations are there in the US?
– How many pennies, if placed on top of each other, would it take to reach the top of Big Ben?
The answer to the question is roughly 200 million kg of potatoes, however, like our other brainteasers, it’s not about finding the perfect answer; it’s about how they work it out!
Another toughie! If your candidate gets anywhere near, then that’s impressive enough.
If they don’t get anywhere near but explain calculations that are based on sensible presumptions, then it’s a great sign.
Ask your candidate to talk you through their sums as they go along. You’ll soon suss it out if they can’t add up properly!
Again, hasty, unthoughtful answers show a disregard for the interview and interviewer.
6. One to really catch them out!
Q6. “Tracy’s mother had 4 children. The first child was named April, the second was named May, the third June. What was the 4th child called?”
What would your answer be? July? Or did you work out the sneaky little plot twist within?
This cruel interview brainteaser depends on it’s capacity to draw the listener’s attention away from the answer, focusing on the unimportant information.
The question has already revealed the answer – ‘Tracy’s mother had 4 children’ – the fourth child must be called Tracy!
The names April, May and June meant nothing.
Of course, there is a right answer – Tracy – and anyone who gets it exhibits a critical thinking, common-sensical brain behind those eyes.
Candidates commonly answer with one of the two following things (unless they’ve completely missed the point)…
1) July. Don’t be too harsh; these poor souls have simply fallen into your well-laid trap!
2) We can’t know. Having missed the revealing reference to Tracy, some candidates may try to outsmart the question by concluding it’s impossible to know. (It is probable that the fourth child is called July, but not certain.)
Unfortunately, both answers are just wrong!
7. That age-old question.
Q7. “How do you know if the light inside the fridge is on or off?”
This, somewhat philosophical, interview question has been attributed to Schlumberger.
There are a variety of ways to answer this question, some great and some not so great, so you’ll have to be the judge…
- Use a camera.
- Drill a hole in the fridge door.
- Find the sensor and test it with your thumb.
- Touch the light bulb and see if it’s warm (be careful with this one, though!)
Although varying in practicality, all of the above do genuinely answer the question!
Unlike some of our brainteasers, this question is fairly easy to answer; you certainly don’t have to have any technical knowledge or special skills.
Candidates with no answer whatsoever (no matter how outrageous) are clearly lacking in creativity.
You can use brainteasers at any stage of the interviewing process, from telephone to face-to-face interview…
…however they’re most effective during group interviews, giving you a chance to assess a candidate’s teamwork, as well as, problem solving skills.
Recruiter Pro Tip:
Brainteasers could be about any topic you fancy, but it is critical to remember that they could be off-putting for certain candidates.
Never base your entire interview on brainteasers; you won’t learn anything about your candidates and you’ll come across unprofessional.
We recommend throwing (at most one or two) brainteasers into the interview, if you feel like it’s going very smoothly, your candidate is confident and everything seems a little too rehearsed.
Above all else, try not to be too hard on your candidates.
Remember, they’ll be judging you just as readily as you are judging them!
Good Luck!- Charles Trivett