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Performance Bibliography Example

Bibliography

The bibliography, placed at the end of your paper, is an alphabetized list of books, articles, and other sources used in writing the paper. The word bibliography has many meanings, and if often used to describe all the works written on a particular subject. When you title this section of your paper, use one of these:

  • Selected Bibliography (if you list all of the sources you consulted in writing your paper)
  • Works Cited or References (if you list only the items you actually cited in your paper).

Contents of this page

Formatting your bibliography

While notes and bibliographies contain much of the same information, bibliographic form differs from note form in these ways:

  • Notes are numbered; bibliographies are alphabetized. The author's last name appears first (Smith, Betty) in a bibliography.
  • Notes use commas and parentheses to separate items; a bibliography uses periods. (Put one space—not two—after each period in a bibliographic entry.)
  • Notes indicate specific pages from which you took information; a bibliography lists entire books or a complete chapter or article to which you referred.
  • The first line of each note is indented 5 spaces and subsequent lines return to the left margin. The first line of a bibliographic entry begins at the left margin and all the other lines are indented 5 spaces.

In either note or bibliographic form, if the author's name or the title (or other item) is missing, simply go on to the next item as it should appear. When alphabetizing, use the author's last name for your entry; if it is not given, simply go on to the next item in order (the title of the book or article, for example) and use that to alphabetize the entry.

Sample bibliography

A sample bibliography follows. Notice the form and order of the entries as well as the punctuation and arrangement within the entries. (Don't use boxes around each entry, however.) The entries are the same as those used in the notes.

Boyer, Paul S. Purity in Print: Book Censorship in America from the Gilded Age to the Computer Age. 2nd ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002.

"Charles R. Van Hise." In Wikipedia. Last modified May 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_R._Van_Hise.

Child, Julia, Louisette Bertholle, and Simone Beck. Mastering the Art of French Cooking. New York: Knopf, 1961.

CIA World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009.

Congressional Record. 71st Cong., 2d sess., 1930, vol. 72 pt. 10.

Davidson, Richard. Interview by author. Madison, WI, 20 April 2012.

Dunlavy, Colleen. "Why Did American Businesses Get So Big?" In Major Problems in American Business History, edited by Regina Blaszczyk and Philip Scranton. New York: Houghton-Mifflin, 2006. 257-263.

Morris-Jones, John. "Wales." In Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed. New York: Encyclopedia Britannica Company, 1911. 258-270.

Gates, Henry Louis, and Nellie Y. McKay, eds. The Norton Anthology of African American Literature. New York: Norton, 1997.

Geller, Anne Ellen, Michele Eodice, Frankie Condon, Meg Carroll, and Elizabeth H. Boquet. The Everyday Writing Center. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2007.

Johnson, Kirk. "Health Care Is Spread Thin on Alaskan Frontier." New York Times, May 28, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/29/us/health-care-in-vast-alaska-frontier-is-spread-thin.html?hpw&_r=0.

Lindberg, Sara M. "Gender-Role Identity Development During Adolescence: Individual, Familial, and Social Contextual Predictors of Gender Intensification." Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2008.

Marshall, Nancy Rose. Review of Joseph Crawhill, 1861-1913, One of the Glasgow Boys. Victorian Studies 42 (1999/2000): 358-60.

Marwell, Gerald, and Pamela Oliver. The Critical Mass in Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Marshall, Tyler. "200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated." Los Angeles Times, 15 March 1985, sec. 1A, p. 3.

Neville, Leonora. Authority in Byzantine Provincial Society, 950-1100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Reprint, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Nadler, Steven. A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza's Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.

Sánchez, Raúl. "Outside the Text: Retheorizing Empiricism and Identity," College English 74 (2012): 234-246.

Shakespeare, William. Othello. Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Milwaukee, April 2012.

Soderbergh, Steven, director. Che. DVD. New York: Criterion Collection, 2008.

United Nations. "Human Rights." Accessed May 29, 2013. http://www.un.org/en/globalissues/humanrights/.

Wandel, Lee Palmer. "Setting the Lutheran Eucharist." Journal of Early Modern History 17 (1998): 124-55. doi: 10.1163/157006598X00135.

Zukofsky, Louis. "Sincerity and Objectification." Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269. Quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.

[If you cite Costello elsewhere (other than as the secondary source of Zukofsky), you should also include Costello in your list of works cited.]

Bibliography entry: Book

1 author, first edition

Nadler, Steven. A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza's Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.

1 author, later edition

Boyer, Paul S. Purity in Print: Book Censorship in America from the Gilded Age to the Computer Age. 2nd ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002.

1 author, reprinted book

Neville, Leonora. Authority in Byzantine Provincial Society, 950-1100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Reprint, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

2 authors

Marwell, Gerald, and Pamela Oliver. The Critical Mass in Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

3 authors

Child, Julia, Louisette Bertholle, and Simone Beck. Mastering the Art of French Cooking. New York: Knopf, 1961.

More than 3 authors

Geller, Anne Ellen, Michele Eodice, Frankie Condon, Meg Carroll, and Elizabeth H. Boquet. The Everyday Writing Center. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2007.

No author

CIA World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009.

Anthology with editors in place of authors

Gates, Henry Louis, and Nellie Y. McKay, eds. The Norton Anthology of African American Literature. New York: Norton, 1997.

Chapter in an edited collection

Dunlavy, Colleen. "Why Did American Businesses Get So Big?" In Major Problems in American Business History, edited by Regina Blaszczyk and Philip Scranton. New York: Houghton-Mifflin, 2006. 257-263.

Article

Article in a journal

Sánchez, Raúl. "Outside the Text: Retheorizing Empiricism and Identity." College English 74 (2012): 234-246.

Book review

Marshall, Nancy Rose. Review of Joseph Crawhill, 1861-1913, One of the Glasgow Boys. Victorian Studies 42 (1999/2000): 358-60.

Newspaper article

Marshall, Tyler. "200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated." Los Angeles Times, 15 March 1985, sec. 1A, p. 3.

Encyclopedia

The Chicago Manual of Style suggests that well-known encyclopedias should be cited in notes rather than in bibliographies. These examples demonstrate how to compose a bibliographic reference for encylopedia entries that are known to be written by a specific author and for entries by no known author.

Morris-Jones, John. "Wales." In Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed. New York: Encyclopedia Britannica Company, 1911. 258-270.

"Charles R. Van Hise." In Wikipedia. Last modified May 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_R._Van_Hise.

Interview by writer of research paper

Davidson, Richard. Interview by author. Madison, WI, April 20, 2012.

Secondary source

Zukofsky, Louis. "Sincerity and Objectification." Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269. Quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.

[If you cite Costello elsewhere (other than as the secondary source of Zukofsky), you should also include Costello in your list of works cited.]

Performance or DVD

Live performance

Shakespeare, William. Othello. Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Milwaukee, April 2012.

DVD

Soderbergh, Steven, director. Che. DVD. New York: Criterion Collection, 2008.

Dissertation

Lindberg, Sara M. "Gender-Role Identity Development During Adolescence: Individual, Familial, and Social Contextual Predictors of Gender Intensification." PhD diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2008.

Lecture

Young, Morris. "What Is Asian American? What is Asian American Literature?" Lecture for Survey of Asian American Literature, University of Wisconsin-Madison, January 22, 2013.

Conference presentation

Roberts, Mary Louise. "The Public Practice of History in and for a Digital Age." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Historical Association, New Orleans, January 3, 2013.

Government document

Congressional Record. 71st Cong., 2d sess., 1930, vol. 72 pt. 10.

Online Source

Online source that is identical to a print source

Wandel, Lee Palmer. "Setting the Lutheran Eucharist." Journal of Early Modern History 17 (1998): 124-55. doi: 10.1163/157006598X00135.

Online newspaper

Johnson, Kirk. "Health Care Is Spread Thin on Alaskan Frontier." New York Times, May 28, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/29/us/health-care-in-vast-alaska-frontier-is-spread-thin.html?hpw&_r=0.

Website

United Nations. "Human Rights." Accessed May 29, 2013. http://www.un.org/en/globalissues/humanrights/.

MLA Formatting and Style Guide

Summary:

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

Contributors: Tony Russell, Allen Brizee, Elizabeth Angeli, Russell Keck, Joshua M. Paiz, Michelle Campbell, Rodrigo Rodríguez-Fuentes, Daniel P. Kenzie, Susan Wegener, Maryam Ghafoor, Purdue OWL Staff
Last Edited: 2017-11-15 10:07:19

The following overview should help you better understand how to cite sources using MLA eighth edition, including the list of works cited and in-text citations.

Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. See also our MLA vidcast series on the Purdue OWL YouTube Channel.

Creating a Works Cited list using the eighth edition

MLA has turned to a style of documentation that is based on a general method that may be applied to every possible source, to many different types of writing. But since texts have become increasingly mobile, and the same document may be found in several different sources, following a set of fixed rules is no longer sufficient.         

The current system is based on a few principles, rather than an extensive list of specific rules. While the handbook still gives examples of how to cite sources, it is organized according to the process of documentation, rather than by the sources themselves. This process teaches writers a flexible method that is universally applicable. Once you are familiar with the method, you can use it to document any type of source, for any type of paper, in any field.

Here is an overview of the process:

When deciding how to cite your source, start by consulting the list of core elements. These are the general pieces of information that MLA suggests including in each Works Cited entry. In your citation, the elements should be listed in the following order:

  1. Author.
  2. Title of source.
  3. Title of container,
  4. Other contributors,
  5. Version,
  6. Number,
  7. Publisher,
  8. Publication date,
  9. Location.

Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication, and required punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses, and colons after issue numbers. In the current version, punctuation is simpler (just commas and periods separate the elements), and information about the source is kept to the basics.

Author

Begin the entry with the author’s last name, followed by a comma and the rest of the name, as presented in the work. End this element with a period.

Said, Edward W.Culture and Imperialism. Knopf, 1994.

Title of source

The title of the source should follow the author’s name. Depending upon the type of source, it should be listed in italics or quotation marks.

A book should be in italics:

Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House. MacMurray, 1999.  

A website should be in italics:

Lundman, Susan. "How to Make Vegetarian Chili." eHow, www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html.*

A periodical (journal, magazine, newspaper) article should be in quotation marks:

Bagchi, Alaknanda. "Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi's Bashai Tudu."Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature, vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.

A song or piece of music on an album should be in quotation marks:

Beyoncé. "Pray You Catch Me."Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016, www.beyonce.com/album/lemonade-visual-album/.

*The eighth edition handbook recommends including URLs when citing online sources. For more information, see the “Optional Elements” section below.

Title of container

Unlike earlier versions, the eighth edition refers to containers, which are the larger wholes in which the source is located. For example, if you want to cite a poem that is listed in a collection of poems, the individual poem is the source, while the larger collection is the container. The title of the container is usually italicized and followed by a comma, since the information that follows next describes the container.

Kincaid, Jamaica. "Girl." The Vintage Book of Contemporary American Short Stories, edited by Tobias Wolff, Vintage, 1994, pp. 306-07.

The container may also be a television series, which is made up of episodes.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, created by Greg Daniels and Michael Schur, performance by Amy Poehler, season 2, episode 21, Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2010.

The container may also be a website, which contains articles, postings, and other works.

Zinkievich, Craig. Interview by Gareth Von Kallenbach. Skewed & Reviewed, 27 Apr. 2009, www.arcgames.com/en/games/star-trek-online/news/detail/1056940-skewed-%2526-reviewed-interviews-craig. Accessed 15 Mar. 2009.

In some cases, a container might be within a larger container. You might have read a book of short stories on Google Books, or watched a television series on Netflix. You might have found the electronic version of a journal on JSTOR. It is important to cite these containers within containers so that your readers can find the exact source that you used.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, season 2, episode 21, NBC, 29 Apr. 2010. Netflix,www.netflix.com/watch/70152031?trackId=200256157&tctx=0%2C20%2C0974d361-27cd-44de-9c2a-2d9d868b9f64-12120962.

Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest, doi:10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Accessed 27 May 2009.

Other contributors

In addition to the author, there may be other contributors to the source who should be credited, such as editors, illustrators, translators, etc. If their contributions are relevant to your research, or necessary to identify the source, include their names in your documentation.

Note: In the eighth edition, terms like editor, illustrator, translator, etc., are no longer abbreviated.

Foucault, Michel. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Translated by Richard Howard, Vintage-Random House, 1988.

Woolf, Virginia. Jacob’s Room. Annotated and with an introduction by Vara Neverow, Harcourt, Inc., 2008.

Version

If a source is listed as an edition or version of a work, include it in your citation.

The Bible. Authorized King James Version, Oxford UP, 1998.

Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students.3rd ed., Pearson, 2004.

Number

If a source is part of a numbered sequence, such as a multi-volume book, or journal with both volume and issue numbers, those numbers must be listed in your citation.

Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal,vol. 6, no. 2, 2008, www.socwork.net/sws/article/view/60/362. Accessed 20 May 2009.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, created by Greg Daniels and Michael Schur, performance by Amy Poehler, season 2, episode 21, Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2010.

Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria. Translated by H. E. Butler, vol. 2, Loeb-Harvard UP, 1980.

Publisher

The publisher produces or distributes the source to the public. If there is more than one publisher, and they are all are relevant to your research, list them in your citation, separated by a forward slash (/).

Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive,  www.artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html. Accessed May 2006.

Women's Health: Problems of the Digestive System. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2006.

Daniels, Greg and Michael Schur, creators. Parks and Recreation. Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2015.

Note: the publisher’s name need not be included in the following sources: periodicals, works published by their author or editor, a website whose title is the same name as its publisher, a website that makes works available but does not actually publish them (such as YouTube, WordPress, or JSTOR).

Publication date

The same source may have been published on more than one date, such as an online version of an original source. For example, a television series might have aired on a broadcast network on one date, but released on Netflix on a different date. When the source has more than one date, it is sufficient to use the date that is most relevant to your use of it. If you’re unsure about which date to use, go with the date of the source’s original publication.

In the following example, Mutant Enemy is the primary production company, and “Hush” was released in 1999. This is the way to create a general citation for a television episode.

“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, Mutant Enemy, 1999.

However, if you are discussing, for example, the historical context in which the episode originally aired, you should cite the full date. Because you are specifying the date of airing, you would then use WB Television Network (rather than Mutant Enemy), because it was the network (rather than the production company) that aired the episode on the date you’re citing.

“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, episode 10, WB Television Network, 14 Dec. 1999.

Location

You should be as specific as possible in identifying a work’s location.

An essay in a book, or an article in journal should include page numbers.

Adiche, Chimamanda Ngozi. “On Monday of Last Week.” The Thing around Your Neck, Alfred A. Knopf, 2009, pp. 74-94.

The location of an online work should include a URL.

Wheelis, Mark. "Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention." Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 6, no. 6, 2000, pp. 595-600, wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/6/6/00-0607_article. Accessed 8 Feb. 2009.

A physical object that you experienced firsthand should identify the place of location.

Matisse, Henri. The Swimming Pool. 1952, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Optional elements

The eighth edition is designed to be as streamlined as possible. The author should include any information that helps readers easily identify the source, without including unnecessary information that may be distracting. The following is a list of select optional elements that should be part of a documented source at the writer’s discretion.

Date of original publication:

If a source has been published on more than one date, the writer may want to include both dates if it will provide the reader with necessary or helpful information.

Erdrich, Louise. Love Medicine.1984. Perennial-Harper, 1993.

City of publication:

The seventh edition handbook required the city in which a publisher is located, but the eighth edition states that this is only necessary in particular instances, such as in a work published before 1900. Since pre-1900 works were usually associated with the city in which they were published, your documentation may substitute the city name for the publisher’s name.

Thoreau, Henry David. Excursions. Boston, 1863.

Date of access:

When you cite an online source, the MLA Handbook recommends including a date of access on which you accessed the material, since an online work may change or move at any time.

Bernstein, Mark. "10 Tips on Writing the Living Web." A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 16 Aug. 2002, alistapart.com/article/writeliving. Accessed 4 May 2009.

URLs:

As mentioned above, while the eighth edition recommends including URLs when you cite online sources, you should always check with your instructor or editor and include URLs at their discretion.

DOIs:

A DOI, or digital object identifier, is a series of digits and letters that leads to the location of an online source. Articles in journals are often assigned DOIs to ensure that the source is locatable, even if the URL changes. If your source is listed with a DOI, use that instead of a URL.

Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. "Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates." Environmental Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. Wiley Online Library, doi: 10.1002/tox.20155.

Creating in-text citations using the eighth edition

The in-text citation is a brief reference within your text that indicates the source you consulted. It should properly attribute any ideas, paraphrases, or direct quotations to your source, and should direct readers to the entry in the list of works cited. For the most part, an in-text citation is the author’s name and page number (or just the page number, if the author is named in the sentence) in parentheses:

Imperialism is “the practice, the theory, and the attitudes of a dominating metropolitan center ruling a distant territory” (Said 9).

or

According to Edward W. Said, imperialism is defined by “the practice, the theory, and the attitudes of a dominating metropolitan center ruling a distant territory” (9).

Work Cited

Said, Edward W.Culture and Imperialism. Knopf, 1994.

When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference, like so (00:02:15-00:02:35).

Again, your goal is to attribute your source and provide your reader with a reference without interrupting your text. Your readers should be able to follow the flow of your argument without becoming distracted by extra information.

Final thoughts about the eighth edition

The current MLA guidelines teach you a widely applicable skill. Once you become familiar with the core elements that should be included in each entry in the Works Cited list, you will be able to create documentation for any type of source. While the handbook still includes helpful examples that you may use as guidelines, you will not need to consult it every time you need to figure out how to cite a source you’ve never used before. If you include the core elements, in the proper order, using consistent punctuation, you will be fully equipped to create a list of works cited on your own.

How to Cite the Purdue OWL in MLA

Entire Website

The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 2016.

Individual Resources

Contributors' names and the last edited date can be found in the orange boxes at the top of every page on the OWL.

Contributors' names. "Title of Resource." The Purdue OWL, Purdue U Writing Lab, Last edited date.

 

Russell, Tony, et al. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL, Purdue U Writing Lab, 2 Aug. 2016.