The terms ethnic and ethnicity have their roots in the Greek word ethnos, which describes a community of common descent. In ethnic conflict research, the terms ethnic group, communal group, ethnic community, people, and minority are mostly used interchangeably. Two elements provide the basis to identify ethnic groups: first, the accentuation of cultural traits and, second, the sense that those traits distinguish the group from the members of the society who do not share the differentiating characteristics. Anthony D. Smith, a scholar of ethnicity and nationalism studies, identified ethnic criteria that provide the origins of communal identity. Those include shared historical experiences and memories, myths of common descent, a common culture and ethnicity, and a link with a historic territory or a homeland, which the group may or may not currently inhabit. Elements of common culture include language, religion, laws, customs, institutions, dress, music, crafts, architecture, and even food. Ethnic communities show signs of solidarity and self-awareness, which are often expressed by the name the group gives itself.
Ethnic identity is formed by both tangible and intangible characteristics. Tangible characteristics, such as shared culture or common visible physical traits, are important because they contribute to the group’s feeling of identity, solidarity, and uniqueness. As a result, the group considers perceived and real threats to its tangible characteristics as risks to its identity. If the group takes steps to confront the threats, its ethnicity becomes politicized, and the group becomes a political actor by virtue of its shared identity. On the other side, ethnicity is just as much based on intangible factors—namely, on what people believe, or are made to believe, to create a sense of solidarity among members of a particular ethnic group and to exclude those who are not members.
Theories of ethnic identity
Although communal identity provides the foundation for the definition of ethnic groups, disagreement exists over how ethnic identity forms and how it changes over time. A first school of thought, known as the primordialist approach, explains ethnicity as a fixed characteristic of individuals and communities. According to primordialists, ethnicity is embedded in inherited biological attributes, a long history of practicing cultural differences, or both. Ethnic identity is seen as unique in intensity and durability and as an existential factor defining individual self-identification and communal distinctiveness. Mobilization of ethnic identity and ethnic nationalism is a powerful tool to engage the group in a political struggle. Ethnic divisions and ethnic conflict are considered inherent to multiethnic societies and a common phenomenon.
The primordialist focus on fixed identities, however, fails to recognize variations in ethnic group formation, ranging from relatively short-term associations to long-standing, strong, and cohesive groups with biological and historical roots. To account for these differences, a second approach, referred to as instrumentalist, was developed, which understands ethnicity as a device used by individuals and groups to unify, organize, and mobilize populations to achieve larger goals. Those goals are mostly of a political nature and include, among others, demands for self-governance, autonomy, access to resources and power, respect for the group’s identity and culture, and minority rights. Instrumentalists hold that ethnicity has very little or no independent ranking outside the political process and is in its character comparable to other political affiliations such as ideological beliefs or party membership. According to instrumentalists, ethnicity is a result of personal choice and mostly independent from the situational context or the presence of cultural and biological traits. Ethnic conflict arises if ethnic groups compete for the same goal—notably power, access to resources, or territory. The interests of a society’s elite class play an important role in mobilizing ethnic groups to engage in ethnic conflicts. Ethnic conflict is thus similar to other political interest conflicts.
Instrumentalism is criticized by those who argue that ethnicity, in contrast to political affiliations, cannot be willfully decided on by individuals and is instead rooted in and regulated by the society as a whole. Advocates of another school of thought, known as social constructivism, focus on the social nature of ethnic identity. In their view, ethnicity is neither fixed nor entirely open. Ethnic identity is created by social interactions between individuals and groups and remains therefore beyond a person’s choice, but it is subject to change if the social conditions change. Individuals and groups cannot avoid the fact that ethnic differences exist, but they determine for themselves what to make of those differences. Ethnic conflict depends thus to a great extent on the opportunities provided for the group to reach their goals. Violent conflict is caused mainly by social and political systems that lead to inequality and grievances and do not offer options for the peaceful expression of differences. Changes in social interactions, such as increased tensions or violent conflict, influence the socially constructed nature of ethnicity. Social constructivists explain the tremendous atrocities committed during ethnic conflicts—such as genocide, mass rape, and ethnic cleansing—by the fact that, by virtue of ethnicity, ultimately everyone becomes involved in the struggle, regardless of their intent.
A fourth view, that of psychocultural interpretations, ascribes to ethnicity deep cultural and psychological roots, which make ethnic identity extremely persistent. The scholar Marc Howard Ross, drawing on psychocultural interpretation theory, defines ethnic identity as originating in “shared, deeply rooted worldviews” that shape group members’ relationships with others, their actions, and their motives. Ethnic identity cannot be changed, only made more tolerant and open-minded. Ethnic conflict engages central elements of each group’s identity and invokes fears and suspicion about real and potential opponents. Ethnic conflict is thus not simply a political event but a drama that challenges the very existence of the group by contesting its identity. This explains why ethnic conflicts are very difficult to resolve.
In reality, some ethnic groups have identities with deep historical roots whereas others do not, and some groups have static identities whereas others have dynamic identities. The concrete expression of ethnicity and its propensity to lead to violence and warfare depend on the context. Ethnic identities are adaptable to and activated by unexpected threats and new opportunities. Ethnicity cannot be politicized unless an underlying core of memories, experience, or meaning moves people to collective action. In light of this, Milton J. Esman, in his book Ethnic Politics (1994), noted that ethnic identity usually “can be located on a spectrum between primordial historical continuities and (instrumental) opportunistic adaptations.”
Several factors contribute to the salience and intensity of ethnic identities. Indisputably, the strongest factor is war and violence. First, the history of common efforts, stories of sacrifices for a common goal, and memories of human suffering create strong connections among the members of affected ethnic groups. Similarly, if a group experiences economic, political, and cultural discrimination, group cohesion tends to increase. Second, a group’s ethnic identity is stronger if mass literacy is achieved. Literacy allows elements of identity to be stored in writing, which means that historical and cultural narratives can reach a mass audience and stay the same over time. Even if an ethnic identity lies dormant for some time, it can be revived. Finally, the identities of nonimmigrant groups tend to be more pronounced than the identities of immigrant ethnic groups. While immigrants often assimilate, nonimmigrant minorities generally adhere to their traditions, especially if they are easily distinguished from the rest of the society by tangible traits such as physical markers.
An overview of selected aspects of contemporary conflict dynamics, intended to provide students and scholars with access to useful information and Internet links.
An estimated 300,000 children and young teens are serving as combatants in civil conflicts around the world. Although responsible for inflicting injuries, these young soldiers are also victims of war, in that they are often forced into military service and are denied the right to education and a safe and secure childhood.
Refugees, Forcible Displacement, and International Security
There are more than 40 million forcibly displaced persons worldwide. Refugee and other displaced populations have been at the heart of recent debates on international security and humanitarian intervention.
Throughout human history, competition over access to scarce or especially valuable resources -- water, arable land, gold, spices, furs, oil, timber, diamonds, and minerals -- has been an important source of conflict. Many analysts believe that resource competition and conflict will increase in the 21st century due to globalization, population growth, excessive exploitation, and climate change.
The illicit sale of rough diamonds has been used by embattled warlords and rebel leaders in several war-torn countries (especially Angola, Congo, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) to finance the purchase of arms, ammunition, and other war-related materials, thereby extending the fighting (at great human cost) and frustrating efforts to achieve a peaceful settlement. In an effort to stop the fighting, peace groups and others have campaigned for an international ban on the sale of these "conflict" or "blood" diamonds."
Conflict over the control of valuable oil supplies has been a persistent feature of international affairs since the beginning of the 20 th century. Such conflict varies in nature, ranging from territorial disputes over the possession of oil-laden border areas to dynastic or factional struggles among the leaders of oil-rich countries to major inter-state wars over the control of vital oil zones. As oil becomes more scarce and valuable, the frequency and severity of such conflict is likely to increase.
Small Arms Proliferation and International Security
Small arms and light weapons are the most widely used instruments of combat in ethnic and internal conflicts. As a result, growing attention is being devoted to the small arms issue by The United Nations, international organizations, concerned states, and non-governmental organizations.
Violence Against Women in War and Peace
Violence against women can be found worldwide, in virtually every country and society. There has been considerable progress in guaranteeing the full rights of women and ending violence against women, but much still needs to be done.
Weapons of Mass Destruction
The dangers posed by weapons of mass destruction have come to occupy center stage in international politics. Over the past century, various states have built and stockpiled lethal arsenals of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and associated material. These weapons have very different capabilities, effects, and military roles: there are some 30,000 nuclear weapons with truly devastating destructive power; chemical weapon stockpiles and their associated 71,000 metric tons of extremely toxic chemical agents scattered around the world; and unknown quantities of biological weapons and lethal pathogens that could spread disease to humans, animals or plants.