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Heptaldehyde Synthesis Essay

All you, probably, know what an essay means. But the word “synthesis” gets every student a little bit confused and lost. Well, fortunately, we know how to help you, and this article would be your ultimate writing guide explaining how to write a synthesis essay. Let’s start from the beginning.

What is a Synthesis Essay?

Many students wonder, “What is a synthesis essay?” A synthesis essay is all about combination. While writing this essay type, you stay focused on different factors and ideas at once. The task contains a sample text that an author should analyze.


Actually, analysis of the given content is a key point in the entire synthesis essay writing. You need to work directly with that prompt and find its purpose, writing style, rhetoric, and the main argument. You must tell what the author of that prompt wanted to express and what his tools were. Your own essay should be built around that text and your main argument.

Having an answer to the question, “What is a synthesis essay?” is not enough to demonstrate the best results in your English writing class.

How to Write a Synthesis Essay?

To understand how to write a synthesis essay, it is necessary to memorize 4 basic elements of a synthesis paper:

  1. Synthesizing sources
  2. Working on a thesis/main argument
  3. Formatting the paper
  4. Talking about the content

A writer is given a prompt to study. These are the instructions prepared by the tutor (e.g., ‘argue to support your hobby which assists in challenging college assignments’).

Draft a tentative thesis statement – the main argument of the entire paper. It is the initial idea which comes to the writer’s mind on the proposed topic. Without a good research, it is impossible to make a candy out of this idea; support your words by the credible information you find either online or in the library. An example: “I think my passion for drinking Coke positively impacts my academic performance as caffeine stimulates brain activity.”

Once the thesis is ready, move to the time-consuming procedure of selecting sources. This is a primary research one must conduct to gather evidence. The sources make people believe the writer’s claim makes sense. You may study information from 6-7 good sources, but a couple of them will help to develop a powerful thesis statement. Among all sources, use credible, up-to-date pieces:

  • Books and e-books
  • Other essays
  • Journal and scholarly articles
  • Graphics and images
  • Documentaries
  • Websites

The credibility of sources depends on the relevance of chosen topic. The close reading is the process which follows any good research. Prepare annotated bibliography (list applied sources), highlight all main text ideas, and take notes during this procedure. Try to connect the best ideas with your synthesis essay writing.

Synthesis Essay Example (Sources)

Evaluating the value of the selected sources is the thing you should do before writing a synthesis essay. try to come up with innovative ideas for the prompt.

To understand how to interpret the prompt and choose sources, we have prepared several examples associated with Coke. You have chosen 8 different sources to speed up your writing. The writer decides Sources number 2, 3, and 4 agree with the main view (thesis). These sources help to prove drinking Coke assists in improving academic performance.

Source 2. Your synthesis paper writing benefits from choosing a documentary about the production of Coke. The documentary reflects the entire process, listing ingredients necessary for the proper human brain activity. The documentary provides necessary information to make your essay essential.

Source 3. One of the English synthesis essays you choose from the existing academic archives online explains the impacts Coke has on some other body parts.

Source 4. Select a source in English which breaks negative stereotypes about your favorite drink. Many parents do not allow their children drink this beverage because of the existing myths; try to prove the opposite using your essay’s arguments. An expert adds:

“If it is a presentation, use the graphic story to illustrate your thesis and supporting evidence. Show the never-ending confrontation between the Coke lovers and haters to prove you respect both sides. Do not ignore naming the negative effects of the drink! It is important to reply to any objections to provide the target audience with an unbiased point of view.”

Mary Ladder, Professor of Literature at GONZAGA UNIVERSITY, US

Types of Synthesis Essay Writing

Two types of synthesis essay writing exist:

  • Explanatory synthesis essay
  • Argument synthesis essay

The explanatory synthesis essay aims to make the reading audience understand the chosen topic. The writer makes an attempt to break the whole topic into separate parts to represent each of them clearly. The explanatory essay is made of the detailed interpretations of objects, locations, events, people, or state of affairs. The writer reflects information in an objective, sober manner. The writer skips obvious details of the analyzed text. Such paper tends to have different sections.

The argument synthesis essay is about proving your main claim is correct through using various effective persuasive methods. A student must apply credible sources in English to support his information. The argumentative synthesis essay writing involves many facts, statistics, in-text citations, quotes, and other techniques used to prove the specific view.

Synthesis Essay Topics

Your synthesis paper should be built around a prompt with perspective for negotiation and discussion. For example, you may analyze text written in Germany during WWII and get your argument with view on modern society and history of that period. It should be content with various views possible. Some good topics to write your synthesis essay:

Good synthesis essay topics would be ones that are debatable, for example:

  • DST (Daylight Saving Time)
  • Abortions
  • Wage and its minimum
  • Immigration
  • Globalization
  • Nature protection
  • Weapon control
  • Social media and its influence on humanity

How to Write a Thesis for a Synthesis Essay?

You need to read the prompt. Even if you are familiar with the target source, push yourself to read it once more; realize your position. Do you support the example text or have a negative review? Structure your claim and write it down for the whole synthesis essay; move to the synthesis essay outline.

Synthesis essay outline writing

Lots of students just don’t realize how important this step is for writing any type of essay or other academic papers. It is the best point to get your essay structure right. The outline is your road map. If you write a typical synthesis essay with three parts (Introduction, Body, Conclusion), you should write three different parts in your outline. Write down all the arguments, supporting facts, and evidence in a proper structure order.

Each argument should approve the statement you are supporting; acknowledge factors that go against your main thesis and idea. This step will make your essay even stronger and more diverse. Please note, that analysis does not mean summarizing - you need to answer related topic questions.

Synthesis essay structure

Synthesis has typical structure, and it looks like that:



  • Main argument 1
  • Main claim 2
  • Main claim 3


Main argument 1

  • Evidence
  • Analysis of Evidence

Main claim 2

  • Evidence Analysis of Evidence

Main claim 3

  • Evidence
  • Analysis of Evidence


  • Restate your main idea and get your view straight


Synthesis essay formatting

The formats of synthesis essay are also typical for all academic essays. Three most widespread formats include MLA, APA, and Chicago style. Each of these formats has their typical areas of use (APA is mostly used in Psychology, Education, and Science). Chicago style is a common format for business purposes; MLA works best for Humanities.

Synthesis Essay for AP English Language and Composition

AP English Language and Composition is a tough course of dealing with. The main goal of this course is to your knowledge of the subject and understanding of the material you are working with. And your grammar and perfect formatting do not pay that big role in your essay grade. The main factor that influences your grade is about defending your claim and point of view.

Three main areas of AP English and Composition course that you should focus on are:

  • The argument is the starting and the simplest point. You just need to come up with your statement and get many supporting facts. It all should work to convince your reader that your view is right.
  • Synthesis is the thing that requires some deep research and identifying various areas of one single text. You should identify the agreements and disagreements between sources. It will help to come up with your claim.
  • Rhetorical analysis is the direct work with prompt and its author; find what was his rhetorical tools to appeal to the reader. What was the main idea about the text?

General Synthesis Essay Tips

We should talk about acronyms. Main ones that will help you to deal with this essay are:

Speaker: Write who was the speaker or writer of the original source. Tell what you know about his life and background.

Occasion: Identity what was the time and place when the source of your synthesis essay was created; get the reason why it was created. You may come up with your own suggestion and build your text around it.

Audience: Identify the audience of the original text

Purpose: Identify the tone and purpose of the text

Subject: What was the main claim in original piece?

Another strategy to write your synthesis essay: these three points appeal to different factors that you should identify and analyze.

Logos is the reason. If your sample text has various definitions and quotations, you need to constitute a wider range of backup info to get successful with your essay.

Ethos is philosophy: Apply to sources that demonstrate credibility and reliability of speaker.

Pathos is emotions. It works great for vivid imagery texts with strong language - connect your reader with your source emotionally. It is a tough task to change someone’s view if the person is already linked to the source emotionally.

It is a simple explanation of these three elements. To get a higher grade with your AP Lang, you need to read more about it.

1 last tip to write your synthetic essay well is to apply this scheme to your analysis. Get these five factors identified: Diction, Imagery, Details, Language, and Structure – feel free to add anything else to your analysis in case it is special.

How to get a higher grade with your essay?

Few main factors that influence your grade for synthetic essay writing:

  • The effective statement about assigned source and its topic.
  • Complete understanding of the source and its subject.
  • Synthesis of sources and position identification.
  • Writer appeals to his researched arguments, not the source itself.
  • Convincing and effective arguments.
  • Clear structure and writing style.
  • Good organization.
  • No grammar or structure mistakes.
  • Quotation of the source.

You should note that the best essays with highest grades always are those with the strong writing style. It means that your essay should be a standalone piece - not just a simple exam essay to get it done. Try to develop your own writing style and get your soul into your essay. You may read some examples of the most popular and successful essays to borrow some ideas and other factors to make your own paper stronger.

Some Extra Essay Writing Advice

Well, these were basic tips and facts about s synthesis essay and its writing specifics. It is recommended to read more about analyzing AP English essays from other sources on the web - it will help you to develop a stronger view of the task itself. The most important thing you need to pay attention to is the thesis statement.

This point plays a great role in your essay, and you need to identify it perfectly; it will be a total failure if readers will not understand your view. All your arguments will look like no purpose and ridiculous.

What we want to advice is to ask yourself a question if your thesis statement is really about your feelings and view. If you are writing your essay with some too short deadline on an exam, you need to stress on your argument in every single paragraph. Then connect each of your ideas to the thesis statement. Write down your thesis statement and put it before dealing with your essay - it will help you to focus on it and add it every time you write a new paragraph.

How does a Great Synthesis Essay Example look?

Synthesis essay writing in English is difficult without having a high-quality synthesis essay example in front of your eyes. Students find many free samples of synthesis essay writing in English online. Keep in mind it is important to decide on the synthesis essay type. Mind topic before searching the examples.

If you’re looking for someone to help you with this tough task, you can always call our professionals. Fill in the simplest order form, and all your academic troubles will be solved immediately.

1. Introduction

Primary amines are known to be key compounds in chemical industry and biology, which are important building blocks for production of many chemical products, such as polymers, solvents, dyes, surfactants, agrochemicals, and biologically-active compounds [1,2,3,4]. Due to their importance, much effort has been devoted to developing various approaches for the synthesis of primary amines, such as the alkylation of halides with NH3 [5,6], the reduction of nitriles [7,8], hydrocyanation and reduction of alkenes [9], hydroamination of olefins [10,11], amination of alcohols [12,13,14], and the reductive amination of carbonyl compounds [15,16,17]. Among the methods, the reductive amination of carbonyl compounds with NH3 was the most attractive and practical way of producing primary amines both in industry and academic laboratories. The overall transformation is highly atom-efficient and economic. However, one-pot amination of carbonyl compounds with NH3 generally suffers from a main issue that the chemoselectivity is relatively poor, as the initially-generated amines are more nucleophilic than ammonia itself, thus often resulting in a mixture of products of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines [18]. Thus, the highly-selective synthesis of primary amines remains full of challenges.

In attempts to achieve high yield of aliphatic primary amines, much work has been performed in the last decades. Since the first catalyzed amination of aldehydes or ketones using NH3 and H2 with Ni catalyst was reported by Mignonac in 1919 [19], both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts were used for the direct reductive amination of carbonyl compounds [20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30]. For example, the reductive amination of aliphatic and aromatic ketones catalyzed by homogeneous Ir and Rh complexes was presented in the patent literature [20], but the selectivity of a primary amine was poor and the reaction conditions were strictly rigorous. Beller et al. reported the first example of a homogeneous Rh catalyst to catalyze reductive amination of aldehydes with NH3 to afford primary amines. Although high selectivity and yield towards aromatic primary amines was achieved, high pressures and temperatures were required (135 °C, 65 bar H2). Moreover, the yields of the aliphatic primary amines from aliphatic aldehydes were still poor under similar reaction condition [21]. Recently, homogeneous methods were reported to prepare primary amines from ketones with reductants such as ammonium formate [22,23], silane [24,25], NaBH4 [26], the Hantzsch ester [27], NaBH3CN [28], nBu3SnH [29], and Zn(BH4)2 [30] instead of hydrogen. Compared to these expensive and environmentally-problematic reducing agents, H2 was a cleaner and more economic reducing agent in practical production.

For the practical application, the homogeneous catalytic system had the problems in the catalyst recovery and reuse. Heterogeneous catalysts could be separated easily after the reaction by simple filtration, which are more ideal for large-scale application. Up to now, most of the heterogeneous catalysts for the amination of carbonyl compounds with NH3 and H2 were reported in patent literatures, such as Ni, Co, and noble metal-based solid catalysts [31]. There were only a few papers about the reductive amination of aliphatic primary aldehydes or ketone with solid catalyst and seldom clarify its process [32,33,34]. For instance, Raney Ni was commonly applied to reductive amination of aldehydes with ammonia in the early literature, but it had several disadvantages including the requirement of high H2 pressure (0.2–12.5 MPa) and low activity and selectivity of the final products [32]. Bodis and co-workers used carbon supported group VIII noble metal (Pt, Pd, Rh, and Ru) as catalysts for the reductive amination of butyraldehyde with NH3. It was found that Rh and Ru catalysts were active and selective in the production of primary amine under 50 bar H2 pressure, while Pt and Pd catalysts favored for the secondary amine formation [33]. MgO/Al2O3 supported Ru was applied to reductive amination of 2-butyl-2-ethyl-4-cyan-butyraldehyde [34]. The moderate yield of diamine was obtained, but high pressures and temperatures were also required. Thus, an environmentally-sustainable and cost effective process for the production of aliphatic primary amines by selective reductive amination of aliphatic aldehydes with NH3 is of great fundamental, as well as practical, interest.

The Ru-based catalysts are the most active catalysts for the reductive amination of carbonyl compounds to the corresponding amines. However, few reports about the comparison study on the different types of catalyst supports were found. The catalytic amination process was also seldom to be clarified. In this work, we reported that supported Ru nanoparticles catalyst, synthesized from various cheap metal oxides as the supports, acted as effective heterogeneous catalysts for the selective synthesis of aliphatic primary amines directly from aliphatic aldehydes, NH3 and H2 under relatively mild conditions. The choice of a suitable support was found to play an important role in the determining the catalytic selectivity of Ru catalyst. The effects of reaction solvent and reaction temperature were discussed in detail. The reaction mechanism of reductive amination of aldehyde with NH3 was also proposed.

2. Results and Discussion

2.1. Influence of Support on the Catalytic Performance

In searching for an active catalyst for reductive amination of aldehydes, Ru was supported on various support materials (CaO, MgO, ZrO2, CeO2, Nb2O5, SnO2, HZSM-5, MCM-41, α-Al2O3, θ-Al2O3, γ-Al2O3) by impregnation methods, followed by H2 reduction at 500 °C. Reductive amination of heptaldehyde to 1-heptylamine 2a with NH3 and H2 was chosen as a model reaction. The catalytic reactions were performed at 80 °C with NH3 (0.4 MPa, 12 mmol) and H2 (3 MPa) in the presence of Ru catalysts (5 wt. %). The results were shown in Table 1. When alumina with three crystal phases was used as the catalytic supports of Ru (Table 1, entries 1–3), the products of reductive amination of heptaldehyde were mainly primary amines 2a. The alumina with spinel structure (γ-Al2O3, θ-Al2O3) both presented high catalytic activity with 100% heptaldehyde conversion and primary amine 2a yields of 92%–94%, and the reaction gave less than 1% Schiff base N-[heptylene]heptyl-1-amine [CH3(CH2)5CH=N–(CH2)6CH3] 2b as a byproduct. Alumina with a corundum structure (α-Al2O3) gave less target amine 2a with the yield of 66% and more 2b was observed (23%). In order to investigate the support effects on the catalytic performance of Ru-based catalysts, purely basic (CaO, MgO), amphoteric (ZrO2, CeO2, γ-Al2O3), relative acidic (Nb2O5, SnO2, MCM-41, HZSM-5) supports were chosen in terms of the classifications of acid-base character of metal oxides [35,36,37]. Amphoteric supports (Table 1, entries 1, 6 and 7) exhibited high selectivity toward 2a with high yield (70%–94%). Very little byproducts, such as 2b (<1%), diheptylamine [CH3(CH2)6–NH–(CH2)6CH3] 2c (0.5%–2.2%), 1-(heptylamino)heptan-1-ol [CH3(CH2)5CH(OH)–N–(CH2)6CH3] 2d (0.8%–1.1%), and 1-heptanol 2e (<0.5%) were detected. When Ru/CeO2 was used as the catalyst, additional 1,1-dimethoxyheptane 2f was observed as a byproduct with 15% yield, formed by acetalization of heptaldehyde with methanol. Purely basic supports (Table 1, entries 4 and 5) afforded temperate 2a yields of 5%–53%, while high yield of 2b (12%–67%) was obtained. Only very small amounts of other byproducts were formed with purely basic supports. Relatively acidic supports (Table 1, entries 8–11) showed poor selectivity toward 2a (0%–18% yield). Relative high yield of 2b (17%–77%), and a little 2d (0.9%–2.9% yield) or 2c (<0.5% yield), were detected. The results indicated that acidic supports was not effective on the further transformation of Schiff base 2b by hydrogenation or hydrogenolysis. In addition, hydrogenation of heptaldehyde to 2e was more easily to take place on acidic supports. Particularly, the yield of 1-heptanol (7%–20%) could be found with Ru/SnO2 and Ru/ZSM-5 catalysts. Thus, the selectivity of primary amine is closely related with the supports, and the alumina with spinel structure (γ-Al2O3, θ-Al2O3) was the most active supports.

Table 1. Amination of heptaldehyde over various catalysts a.

EntryCatalystsCon. (%)Yield (%) b

The catalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, SEM, and elemental mapping images, and HRTEM. The results of nitrogen sorption and activity were summarized in Table S1