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Bibliography For Medieval History


Edler, Florence Marguerite. Glossary of mediaeval terms of business, Italian series, 1200-1600. Cambridge, Mass., 1934. [AM]


Bosworth, Joseph. An Anglo-Saxon dictionary : based on the manuscript collections of the late Joseph Bosworth, edited and enlarged by T. Northcote Toller. Oxford, 1983 - rp. of the 1898 ed. Ancient/Medieval Reading Rm

Supplemented by Toller, below. See also Alistair Campbell's Enlarged Addenda and Corrigenda, Oxford, 1972.

Kurath, Hans. Middle English Dictionary. Ann Arbor, 1952 - .[REF, AM]

The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 20 vols. Oxford, 1989.[REF]

GET REF also available as a datafile on CLIO+ and in the Electronic Text Service.

Stratmann, Francis Henry. A Middle English Dictionary. Oxford, 1891. Ancient/Medieval Reading Rm ()

Still necessary, until Kurath is complete.

Toller, T. Northcote. An Anglo-Saxon dictionary based on the manuscript collections of the late Joseph Bosworth. Oxford, 1921. Ancient/Medieval Reading Rm ()

Supplement to Bosworth.



Godefroy, Frederic. Dictionnaire de l'ancienne langue francaise. Paris, 1880-1902. [REF]

The great dictionary of Old French.

Greimas, Algirdas. Dictionnaire de l'ancien francais : le moyen age. Paris, 1992. [AM]

Raynouard, Francois Juste Marie. Lexique roman ou dictionnaire de la langue des troubadours. 6 vols. Paris, 1835-44. [REF] -

Provencal French

Robert, Paul. Le grand Robert de la langue francaise : dictionnaire alphabetique et analogique de la langue francaise. 9 vols. [REF]

The great dictionary of the French language.

Tobler, Adolf & Erhard Lommatzsch. Altfranzosisches Worterbuch. Berlin & Wiesbaden, 1915. [REF]

The alphabet is nearly complete for this supplement to Godefroy.



Graff, Eberhard Gottlieb. Althochdeutscher Sprachschatz. 6 vols. Berlin, 1834-46. [REF]

Being replaced by Karg-Gasterstadt.

Grimm, Jacob & Wilhelm. Deutsches Worterbuch. 16 vols. in 33. Leipzig, 1854-1960, rp. 1984. [REF]

The great dictionary of the German language.

Holthausen, Ferdinand. Altsachsisches Worterbuch. Cologne, 1967. [AM]

Karg-Gasterstadt, Elisabeth & Theodor Frings. Althochdeutsches Worterbuch. Berlin, 1952- . [REF]

Until it's complete, reference must be made to Graff above.

Lasch, Agathe et al. Mittelniederdeutsches Handworterbuch. Hamburg, 1928- . [REF]

Lexer, Matthias. Mittelhochdeutsch Handworterbuch. 3 vols. Leipzig, 1872-78. [AM]

Schiller, Karl Christian & August Lubben. Mittelniederdeutsches Worterbuch. 6 vols. Bremen, 1875-81.[AM] - essential, until Lasch is complete.



Du Cange, Charles Du Fresne, sieur. Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae graecitatis. 2 vols. Lyon, 1688; rp. Graz, 1958. - [AM]: PA1125 .D8 1688a

Lampe, G.W.H. A Patristic Greek Lexicon. 5 parts. Oxford, 1961-68. - [REF] & [AM]: PA881 .P45

Liddell, Henry George & Robert Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon. Rev. ed. by Sir Henry Stuart Jones, with suppl. by Eric Barber. Oxford, 1968. - [AM]: PA445.E5 L6 1968

Sophocles, E.A. Greek lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine periods (from B.C. 146 to A.D. 1100). 2 vols. Cambridge, 1887; rp. 1957. - [AM]

Wirth, Peter. Reallexikon der Byzantinistik. Amsterdam, 1968- . [AM] - an enormous project to include 50 volumes treating the period 354-1453, which has hardly begun.



Battaglia, Salvatore. Grande dizionario della lingua Italiana. vols. Turin, 1961-92. [REF]

Bosshard, Hans. Saggio di un glossario dell'antico lombardo : compilato su statuti e altre carte medievali della Lombardia e della Svizzera italiana. Florence, 1938; rp. Sala Bolognese, 1986. [AM]

Rossi, Girolama, 1831-1914.Glossario medioevale Ligure. Turin, 1896-1909; rp. Bologna, 1988. [AM] - Not a dictionary but the foundations for one.



Blaise, Albert & Henri Chirat. Dictionnaire latin-francais des auteurs chretiens. Turnhout, 1954. [AM]

Blaise, Albert. Lexicon Latinitatis Medii Aevi = Dictionnaire latin-francais des auteurs du Moyen-Age. Turnhout, 1975. [AM, REF]

Du Cange, Charles Du Fresne, sieur. Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis. Orig. Paris, 1840-50. [REF] - Originally published in 1678 & updated many times, this treats terms that deviate from the classical norm. It is still a difficult & largely out-of-date tool and is being replaced by the work of the Union Academique Internationale below.

Forcellini, Egidio. Totius latinitatis lexicon... 10 vols. Prato, 1858-87. [AM] - For portions of the alphabet not covered by the Thesaurus linguae latinae.

Niermeyer, Jan Frederik. Mediae Latinitatis lexicon minus. Leiden, 1976. [AM, REF] - the latest edition is 1993.

Souter, Alexander. A glossary of later Latin to 600 A.D. Oxford, 1949. [AM, REF]

Thesaurus linguae latinae. Leipzig, 1900- . [REF] - Based on all Latin texts to the end of the 6th century, the project has reached the letter P, but all of N is still lacking.

Union Academique Internationale. Novum glossarium mediae Latinitatis ab anno DCCC usque ad annum MCC. Copenhagen, 1957- . [REF] - this work, inspired by Henri Pirenne, is intended to replace Du Cange, though there have been problems.



Balon, Joseph. Grand Dictionnaire de Droit du Moyen Age. Namur, 1972- . [LAW] - a list of legal terms in Latin, French, German and other languages with French translations and some bibliography, the letter C has been reached.

ProducerUniversity of Leeds
LanguagesEnglish, French, German, Italian, Spanish
DisciplinesArchaeology, architecture, art history, canon law, crusades, daily life, ecclesiastical history, economics, education, epigraphy, geography, hagiography, Hebrew and Jewish studies, heraldry, humanism, Islam, language, law, literature, liturgy, manuscripts and palaeography, maritime studies, medicine, military history, monasticism, music, numismatics, onomastics, philosophy, politics and diplomacy, printing history, science, social history, technology, theology, and more
Record depthIndex and abstract
Format coverageIndividual articles in journals, Festschriften, conference proceedings, collected essays, exhibition catalogues
Temporal coverageAD 300-1500
Geospatial coverageEurope, Middle East, North Africa
No. of records472,000+ article records, 3,200+ journals
Print edition
Print titleInternational Medieval Bibliography: Multidisciplinary Bibliography of the Middle Ages

The International Medieval Bibliography (IMB) is a multidisciplinary bibliographic database covering Europe, North Africa and the Middle East for the entire period from AD 300 to 1500.[1] It aims to provide a comprehensive, current bibliography of articles in journals and miscellany volumes (conference proceedings, essay collections or Festschriften) published worldwide in over 35 different languages.

The database currently comprises over 400,000 article records on every aspect of the Middle Ages, with over 16,000 new records being added annually in quarterly updates.[2] A printed annual update of new records is published twice a year.

The IMB and Brepols have joined forces with the Bibliographie de civilisation médiévale (BCM), based at the University of Poitiers, and it is possible to use a joint interface to search for articles in the IMB and monographs in the BCM.


The IMB was founded in 1967 by Peter H. Sawyer, then at the University of Leeds, with the support of the Medieval Academy of America, and is published by Brepols.[3][4] Its editorial staff is based at the Institute for Medieval Studies at the University of Leeds, and the project is currently supported by around 70 academic contributors from all over the world.[5]


While many disciplines, such as the sciences and medicine, publish their research predominantly online and in English, a very large proportion of research in the disciplines relevant to Medieval Studies is still published in print (or print plus electronic versions) and in a wide variety of languages. The IMB aims to include publications from all disciplines and languages, focusing on those which represent the newest research and which are not separately catalogued by libraries, i.e. articles in periodicals and essays or papers in conference proceedings, Festschriften and exhibition catalogues.

The geographical scope was originally restricted to Christian Europe, but has gradually been extended to include North Africa and the Near East for the entire medieval period, so that it now also forms an important resource for the Islamic heritage as well as the cultures of Christianity, Judaism and the various European pagan religions.[6]

Using the IMB[edit]

The IMB provides a comprehensive cataloguing and indexing system to help users find articles relevant to their research. Full bibliographical details of publications covered in the IMB are given in a primary entry. In addition, each article is given a "three-dimensional" classification covering general subject (the academic discipline which best relates to its content), geographical area and century/centuries. Many articles are also provided with a brief abstract when the article title is not enough to give the reader an idea of its content. Each article is also given 3-8 keywords, which constitute a controlled vocabulary and allow enhanced search possibilities in addition to unstructured, free searches. In the user interface these index terms can be accessed in the form of browse lists. There are over 120,000 index terms, which are divided into five categories:

  1. Placenames (including geographical features)
  2. Medieval countries and peoples
  3. Personal names (covering names of individuals, families and dynasties, modern scholars and titles of texts)
  4. Keywords (e.g. agriculture, jewellery, sigillography, etc.)
  5. Manuscripts and archival holdings.

Each category is treated as an authority list, which is continually being refined and expanded by the editors. A hierarchical index offers an integrated tree structure comprising some 1,500 subject terms. This allows the user to navigate from nine major conceptual areas through to the specific subject terminology employed in medieval scholarship. A parallel index of places allows step-by-step navigation from major geographical areas to over 50,000 different names of places, regions and geographical features in Europe, North Africa and the Near East. For example, users can click through from British Isles > England > West Yorkshire > Leeds > Kirkstall Abbey.

The IMB is OpenURL-compatible, so that the use of digital object identifiers (DOI) with individual article records means that users can go directly to records in a local or external library catalogue, request a copy from a document supply service or, where their library has a subscription to the publication in question, go directly to a full text version of the article. Export functionality allows users to save and refine the results of searches and so construct their own bibliographies, and email alerts can be set up for new publications which conform to users' preferred search criteria.

Details on how to subscribe to the IMB are available on the Brepols website, along with information and YouTube video tutorials on how to get started.


1967-1969Peter H. Sawyer and Robert S. Hoyt
1970-1971Pauline A. Stafford
1972-1973Patricia Neal
1974-1985Richard J. Walsh
1986-1987Catherine Cubitt
1988-1995Simon Forde
1996-presentAlan V. Murray


  1. ^"International Medieval Bibliography". Retrieved 3 November 2011. 
  2. ^"Brepols Database Information". Retrieved 3 November 2011. 
  3. ^Sawyer, Peter (2009). "The Origins of the International Medieval Bibliography: Its Unwritten History (as told by its Founder)". Bulletin of International Medieval Research. 14 for 2008: 57–61. 
  4. ^Macartney, Hilary (2007). "La International Medieval Bibliography como herramienta de investigación para la historiografía de ciudades medievales y sus territorios". La Ciudad medieval y su influencia territorial: Nájera. Encuentros Internacionales del Medievo 3, 2006: 439–450. 
  5. ^"IMB Contributors". Retrieved 3 November 2011. 
  6. ^Murray, Alan V. (2001). "Thirty-Five Years of the International Medieval Bibliography (1967-2002)". Bulletin of International Medieval Research. 7: 1–9.