Citing a general website article
Note:Website citations are often left out of the bibliography and are instead mentioned in a note or within the text. If your instructor would like a formal citation, use the format below. Include a URL and a publication date or date of last revision; if either of those dates cannot be found, include an accessed date.
Note:Capitalization rules depend on the website you are citing. Titles of websites are generally set in roman without quotation marks and capitalized in title case. In a small departure from the 16th edition, CMOS 17 specifies that if the website has a print counterpart (such as the websites for newspapers and other publications), then it should be in italics. If it does not, then it should be treated normally. See the examples below:
The website of the Washington Post = Washington Post
Wikipedia’s entry on the American Revolution = Wikipedia
Last name, First name. “Article Title.” Website Title. Month Date, Year of publication. Publication/Updated Month Date, Year OR Accessed Month Date, Year of access. URL.
Note: If there is a “Last modified on” date, include that if the publication date cannot be found.
Limer, Eric. “Heck Yes! The First Free Wireless Plan is Finally Here.” Gizmodo. October 1, 2013. http://gizmodo.com/heck-yes-the-first-free-wireless-plan-is-finally-here-1429566597
Shevchenko, Olga. “Remembering Life in the Soviet Union, One Family Photo at a Time.” The New York Times. December 27, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/12/27/opinion/sunday/-soviet-union-one-photos.html?action=click&pgtype=Homepage&version=Moth-Visible&moduleDetail=inside-nyt-region-1&module=inside-nyt-region®ion=inside-nyt-region&WT.nav=inside-nyt-region
Please also note that these examples refer to Web pages retrieved from the free Internet. They do not refer to e-books, nor do they refer to articles from databases or online encyclopedias accessible through the library. For examples of citing these types of materials, click on the books, articles, and/or encyclopedias links to the left.
Section 14.245 of the Manual presents the elements of a webpage citation (which are in a slightly different order than a citation for a book or article):
- Webpage title (or a description of the page if there is no title)
- Webpage author (if any)
- The owner or sponsor of the site
- Publication, revision, or last updated date if any; if no date of this nature is available, include an access date
- Webpage address. Unlike in other citation styles, you do include a period at the end of a webpage address when citing webpages in the Chicago style.
Web Page, Author:
Kathie Nunley, "The Caffeine Craze of Youth," Layered Curriculum, accessed July 28, 2008. http://help4teachers.com/caffeine.htm.
Web Page, Group Author:
United Nations Platform for Action Committee, “Globalization and Clothes,” Women and the Economy, last modified March 2011,
Web Page, No Author:
"Leave no Veteran Behind: A Special Court Tries to Keep Troubled Veterans out of Prison,” The Economist, June 2, 2011,
- There is a distinction between a webpage and a website: a webpage is an individual page that forms part of a larger, broader website -- for example the Ask A Librarian page is a webpage within the Meriam Library's website.
- When citing content from the Web, cite the individual page where you found the information you are citing, not the broader website
- The title of a webpage is analogous to chapter or article title, and as such should be "put in quotation marks." The title of a website is analogous to a book or journal title, and as such should be italicised.
Rebecca MacKinnon, “Internet freedom is dead. Long live Internet freedom,” RConversation (blog), September 27, 2010,
- Section 14.243 of the Manual defines a blog as being a webpage with dated entries (posts) and dated comments
For additional information, see sections 14.243-246 of the Manual.